A gene is the basic physical & functional unit of heredity. Genes are made up of DNA. Some genes act as instructions to lớn make molecules called proteins. However, many genes vì not code for proteins. In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases. An international retìm kiếm effort called the Human Genome Project, which worked to determine the sequence of the human genome và identify the genes that it contains, estimated that humans have sầu between đôi mươi,000 và 25,000 genes.

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Every person has two copies of each gen, one inherited from each parent. Most genes are the same in all people, but a small number of genes (less than 1 percent of the total) are slightly different between people. Alleles are forms of the same ren with small differences in their sequence of DNA bases. These small differences contribute lớn each person’s quality physical features.

Scientists keep trachồng of genes by giving them quality names. Because ren names can be long, genes are also assigned symbols, which are short combinations of letters (& sometimes numbers) that represent an abbreviated version of the ren name. For example, a gene on chromosome 7 that has been associated with cystic fibrosis is called the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; its symbol is CFTR.

Genes are made up of DNA. Each chromosome contains many genes.


Credit: U.S. National Library of Medicine

For more information about genes: Genetics provides consumer-friendly gene summaries that include an explanation of each gene”s normal function & how mutations in the ren cause particular genetic conditions.

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More information about how genetic conditions và genes are named is also available from Genetics.

The Centre for Genetics Education offers a fact sheet that introduces genes and chromosomes.

The Tech Museum of Innovation at Stanford University describes genes và how they were discovered.

The Virtual Genetics Education Centre, created by the University of Leicester, offers additional information on DNA, genes, and chromosomes.

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Genetics trang chủ Reference has merged with Genetics Home Reference content now can be found in the “Genetics” section of Learn more

The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users with questions about a personal health condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional.

U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health